週三, 24 七月 2013 19:11

百年前客觀而真實的台灣人權與文明化記錄-紐約時報

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SAVAGE ISLAND OF FORMOSA TRANSFORMED BY JAPANESE
日本人轉型了蠻荒險惡的福爾摩沙島 1904-09-24

Wonders Worked in a Few Years With a People That Others Had Failed to Subdue
奇蹟完成在短短數年,一個民族完成了別的民族無法克服的難題

 

A Lesson for Other Colonizing Nations.
一個讓其它殖民國家學習的課程

LONDON, Sep. 24. – The Times today publishes the following article from a correspondent, dealing with Japan’s transformation of Formosa: To achieve success in any art three things are necessary – native talent, close application, and experience.
倫敦、九月二十四日(1904)-時代雜誌今天發表一位記者的文章,關於日本轉型福爾摩沙事務:成功需要的三個必要條件 - 天分,貼切的運用,和經驗。

The art of colonizing is no exception to the rule. Hence the Germans have failed in their attempts at colonization, notwithstanding their close application, either from want of native talent or from the lack of experience; but most probably the fact that the first attempt in any art is usually a failure has been the cause of Germany’s non-success.
殖民的藝術是沒有特例的。因此,德國人在殖民嘗試中曾經失敗過,更遑論貼切的運用,不管是缺乏天分或經驗;但是,最有可能的事實乃是,第一次藝術創作的嘗試通常是失敗的,這也是德國不能成功的原因。

For this reason Japan’s first attempt at colonizing is particularly interesting, especially as the Island of Formosa, which is Japan’s first colony, probably so-called offers difficulties to a colonizing nation which in the past have appeared insurmountable to many other nations.
基於這個原因,日本人第一次殖民嘗試是特別另人感到有與趣的。更特別的,日本第一個殖民地,福爾摩沙島,給了過去許多嘗試殖民的國家無法克服的困難。

The Island of Formosa has ever been a favorite haunt of outlaws from China and from various other countries, and the savageness and unruliness of the population were so great that those parts of the country which were conquered several times were never colonized.
福爾摩沙島過去曾經是來自中國和許多國家的犯罪者常來躲藏的好地方,而且蠻荒和無法紀的居民太多,這些因素,讓過去幾次侵略者從未殖民過。

The Spanish and the Dutch made attempts at colonizing Formosa, but they gave it up in despair. The Chinese left the land virtually a wilderness, and the French and English, who might easily enough have acquired it, preferred not to put their foot into the interior of that savage island.
西班牙人和荷蘭人曾經嘗試殖民福爾摩沙,但是都失望的放棄。中國人實質是讓這個土地停留在荒野狀態中,而法國人和英國人可能輕而易及的拿到她,但是選擇了不去涉足這險峻蠻荒的島嶼。

 

Taming the Wild Natives.
馴化荒野的本性

Therefore, when Japan demanded Formosa after the conclusion of the Chinese-Japanese war of 1894-1895, China was willing, if not glad, to cede to it, and Li Hung-Chang remarked sarcastically that Japan would find the island an exceedingly bad bargain.
因此,當日本人在中曰戰爭結束後要求福爾摩沙時,中國雖不高興卻很樂意割讓她,而且李鴻章(清國中堂宰相) 諷刺的講,日本將會發現這個島是一個非常壞的交易。

When Japan entered Formosa she found the coast at the mercy of pirates. The interior was ruled partly by the savage aborigines, partly by organized bands of outlaws and robbers, who plundered ships, wrecked on the coast and murdered the crews who approached the island. While Formosa was in the possession of China, trouble with the United States and other countries was frequently caused by these murderous attacks on the crews of foreign ships. China was probably glad to get rid of the unruly island.
當日本進入福爾摩沙時,她發現海岸線是在海盜的淫威控制。內陸則部分被野蠻的原住民所控制,另一部分則是被有組織的罪犯土匪所控制,他們搶劫遇海難的而靠往此島的船隻,殺害船員。當中國擁有福爾摩沙時,許多與美國和其它國家的糾紛常常是因為這些對外國船隻與船員的謀殺。中國可能是非常高興地去除這化外之地。

The conquest of the island took a year, and on the 31st of March, 1896, it was placed under civil administration. But the former Chinese officers and officials who used to be on duty in the island, and who feared to be deprived of their positions, joined hands with the unruly elements of Formosa, instigated them to revolt against their new rulers, and the country was constantly in a state of restlessness and turmoil up to the end of 1901, when a sweeping movement of the troops rid the island at last of its revolutionary elements.
征服這個島用了一年的時間,而在1896年3月31日,這個島被文明的管轄。但是曾經在島上執行任務的前中國官員、中國官方及那些害怕位置被剝奪的人,與那些福爾摩沙無法無天的份子聯手,挑撥他們起來反抗新統治者,而且這個地方一直都處在不安與動亂的狀況中,如此持續到1901年底,當時軍隊的掃蕩行動終於清除了島上的作亂份子。

 

Leniency in Enforcing Laws.
法律執行的寬容

Though the country has hitherto enjoyed only a few years of complete peace under Japanese rule, the appearance of the country and the spirit of its formerly savage inhabitants have already completely changed, and the natives begin to understand the blessings of Japanese rule and to praise it.
雖然這個地方到目前為止,在日本統治下僅僅數年,已經享受了完全的和平。而且這個地方的外表和過去險惡的居民的靈魂已經完全改變了。當地的居民開始瞭解並稱讚日本的統治是上帝的賜福。

The policy by which Japan has achieved this remarkable success has been the following: Japan has, so far as possible, respected the prejudices of the inhabitants, and has tried rather to gently guide than to coerce them on the path of civilization.
日本賴以完成這非凡的成功的政策包括了:日本盡可能地,尊重居民的偏見,而且寧可以溫和的指導而非威嚇強制地帶領居民走向文明之路。

For instance, the ancient “Peace Corps,” which was established by the Chinese and which protected the inhabitants against the raids of armed banditti, and against fire, floods, and other natural calamities, was maintained, but at the same time the enlightened laws of Japan were introduced. However, while these laws are in the main applied with their full force to the Japanese residing in the island, they are modified in the case of the aboriginal inhabitants whose lack of civilization makes them unable to appreciate at once civilized conditions and the necessity to respect those laws whereby civilization is upheld.
舉例來說,保留了古代的“義警”(Peace Corp.),其為中國人所建立而在於保護居民免於武裝土匪的劫掠,火災和水患,和其它自然的災害。但也同時地,介紹居民開明的日本法律。不過,這些主要施用於居住在島上的日本人的法律,依據原來住民的狀況調整,使其能夠被缺乏文明而無法立刻認知理解的原來住民所遵守,來達到文明化的堅持。

 

Curing the Opium Habit.
治療鴉片惡習

Even the opium habit has in so far been respected that the natives are not punished for consuming opium, though opium smoking and dealing in opium is a crime for which Japanese citizens in Japan and in Formosa as well are punished with penal servitude of varying degrees. But in order to gradually diminish the amount of opium consumed, on the same principle on which a drunkard may gradually be weaned from his drink, the Japanese government has made the opium trade a monopoly, which it judiciously uses for at the same time permitting and discouraging opium smoking.
甚至吸食鴉片的惡習至目前仍然被尊重,這些住民不會因為吸食鴉片而受罰,雖然吸食和販賣鴉片,對於居住在日本和島上的日本人會依情節而被判處牢役的刑責。但是為了逐漸消除鴉片吸食量,在同樣的原則下,對於患有慣性吸食患者,能夠斷其癮癖,日本政府讓販賣鴉片成為專賣,而同時法律上允許卻不鼓勵吸食鴉片。

Only confirmed smokers are able to obtain opium, and they can secure the drug only under the strictest surveillance. The Government controlling the supply of opium doles it out through licensed agents to licensed smokers, and the police watch with the greatest vigilance that the circle of opium smokers does not enlarged.
只有被確認的吸食者才能夠獲得鴉片,而且只能在嚴格監控下獲取。政府控制鴉片的供給,小量的供給有執照的經銷代理給有登記的吸食者,另外警察人員則高度的監控確定鴉片吸食者沒有擴大的情形。

At the same time moral pressure is brought to bear. All doctors have constantly to point out the evils of opium smoking to the grown-up, and all school teachers have to warn the children against the injurious and demoralizing effects of the opium habit.
在這同時道德的壓力也開始呈現。所有的醫生不斷地對成年者指出鴉片吸食的邪惡,所有的學校老師必需對學生警告吸食鴉片的習慣會對身體和道德殘害。

The population of the island amounts to present roughly to 3,000,000, of whom in September, 1900, 169,064 were opium smokers. By the end of March, 1902, only 152,044 were registered and licensed as opium smokers, the decrease of 17,020 having been caused by death or by the discontinuance of the opium habit, and this number will no doubt rapidly be further reduced by the wise policy that is being pursued.
島上的居民大約有3,000,000人,在1900年時有169,064鴉片吸食者。而在1902,3月底,只剩下152,044人登記吸食者,而在減少的17,020人當中,有的是因為死亡或斷絕吸食的習慣,不可懷疑的,這個數字會在這明智的政策下快速地消減中。

It is significant that the opium imported, which represented in 1900 a value of 3,392,602 yen, amounted in 1903 to the value of 1,121,455 yen only. From a revenue point of view the policy restricting the use of opium in Formosa is no doubt unfavorable, for it means the State a serious loss of income on the one side, and increased expenses for administration and the surveillance of opium smokers on the other side.
在1900時鴉片的進口值是3,392,602日圓,而在1903時則減至1,121,455日圓。從收入的觀點上看,這個在福爾摩沙島上限制鴉片的政策無疑的是不受歡迎的,因為它一方面對國家是收入上的損失,另一方面在對吸食監管上增加了支出。

While the Japanese Government has in no way tried to hurt the susceptibilities of the natives by meddling with their religion and their customs, it has given them tangible proof of the benefit of Japanese rule by improving in every respect the conditions of the people. In the first place, the law-abiding toilers are no longer terrorized and tyrannized over by robber bands, and enjoy freedom under a just Government. In the second place much has been done for their bodily welfare.
日本政府不干涉住民的宗教與風俗習慣,從各方面的條件上的改善,而在實證上給了他們可感受到的日本統治的好處。首先,對於守法的工作者,不再受到土匪強盜集團暴力與壟斷,而在公正的政府管理下享受了自由。其次,對於身體的照顧也所獲益良多。

The country used to suffer much from epidemic diseases, which are largely caused by the wretchedly bad water which the natives obtained from stagnant pools and contaminated streams. Consequently the Japanese set about to provide a supply of pure water.
這個地方曾經為流行性的疾病所苦,其主要原因乃是當地居民從停滯的水池和污染的河川中,攝取惡劣的水質所致。因此日本人規劃了淨水的供應。

The total number of artesian wells that have bored in Formosa is not available, but in the Taihoku district alone, where about one-tenth of the population is living, more than 800 wells have been sunk.
在福爾摩沙總共的水井數字不詳,不過僅僅在台北地區,在當時佔全人口數的十分之一的地方,卻開了800口井。

 

Fine System of Schools Started
開始了優良的學校系統

Education being the basis and starting point of all progress, Japan has introduced her splendid education system in Formosa. There are schools for the Japanese, with 60 teachers and 2,000 pupils, and there are 130 elementary schools for the natives with a teaching staff of 521 teachers, who are educating 18,149 children and transforming them into civilized beings.
教育是一切進步的起點,日本已經引進非常好的教育系統到福爾摩沙。為日本人設立的學校共有60位老師和2000位學生,給當地的人學校,則有130所小學和521老師,教育18,149位孩童,將他們教化為文明的人。

However, Japan is not satisfied with providing elementary education for the natives, for it is her ambition to give to Formosa the best she has to give. Consequently Japan has established for the use of the natives a medical school, a Japanese language school, and a school for training school teachers.
不過,日本仍不滿意只提供給當地人基礎的教育,因為她的雄心壯志是將她最好的都給福爾摩沙。其結果是,日本己已為當地人建立了一所醫學院,一所日本語語言學院和一所師範學院。

The medical school in Formosa has the grand distinction that it is the only school in the Far East which gives a regular course of the modern science and practice of medicine to students of Chinese origin. It is domiciled in Taihoku, and at the present moment about 150 students are studying medicine there under the guidance of competent Japanese professors.
在福爾摩沙的醫學院聲名遠播,因為那是遠東唯一以中國語提供正規的現代科學課程和醫學實習的學校。它座落在台北,在此時大約有150位學生在接受非常稱職的日本教授的指導在學習醫學。

The Japanese language school serves two objects. Its purpose is to spread the Japanese language among the natives, and at the same time to furnish opportunities to the Japanese to learn the native languages, and thus to prepare them to act asteachers and interpreters in the interior.
日本語語言學院有兩個目標。它的目的是要傳佈日語給當地人,同時提供日本人學習當地語言的機會,也讓他們準備做為老師和內地的翻譯。

The happiness of the individual depends not only on his security, his freedom from tyranny, and on his bodily wellbeing, but also on his prosperity. Consequently Japan has made it her aim to increase the prosperity of her new colony.
個人的幸福不但是基於他免於暴力的人身安全,也基於個人的健康,更基於自身的繁榮。結果是,日本已達成讓她的新殖民地增加繁榮的目標。

 

Making Network of Railways
興建鐵道網路

When Japan took over Formosa there were no roads in existence, but strange to say there was a short piece of railway which was almost useless, so badly was it built and so wretchedly was it managed. Railway fares and freights were changed almost daily, and trains were run “when convenient.”
當日本接管福爾摩沙時,那裡沒有路的存在,但說來奇怪,卻有一條短短的而且幾乎沒有用處的鐵路,不但是建造的很差而且管理相當拙劣。鐵路的票價與貨物的運費幾乎是每天在變,而且火車只是在”方便時”行駛。

Understanding the fundamental requirements of Formosa, the Japanese started methodically upon road making in many parts of the island, and according to a recent report of the United States Consul more than 1,000 miles of road have already beenbuilt. At the same time the Japanese Government mapped out a comprehensive scheme or railways, on which it proposes to spend 28,800,000 yen, or almost £ 3,000,000, an amount which for a country like Japan sounds almost fabulous.
在瞭解福爾摩沙的基本需求後,日本有計畫地開始在福爾摩沙許多地方造路,根據美國國會最近的報告,有超過1000英哩的路已經被建造完成。在這同時,日本政府全盤規畫鐵路地圖,其中預計花費2億8千8百萬日圓,或者幾乎是300萬英磅,就一個像日本這樣的國家,幾乎是破天荒的金額。

The piece of railway which the Japanese found in existence has already been thoroughly reconstructed, and a new line from Shinchiku to Takao was commencing simultaneously from both termini with the greatest energy. Between 1897 and 1903, 95 miles of railway were laid, 37 stations were built, and 210 freight cars and passenger wagons and 20 engines introduced.
那一段日本人發現已存在的鐵路已完全重建,而且新竹到高雄的新線也以最大的能量同時從兩端展開。在1897至1903之間,95英哩的鐵路已鋪設完成,建造了37個火車站,而且引進了210貨車和乘客車廂和20個火車引擎。

During this period the number of passengers carried has grown fourfold and the quantity of good transported tenfold. Besides, light railways were introduced, of which 125 miles were laid within a few months. A further 52 miles of light railroad are about to be built.
在這一段期間,運載乘客的數量成長四倍而貨運量則以10倍數增加。另外,在數月間輕軌鐵路也建造了125英哩。還有52英哩輕軌鐵路也正在建造中。

The post, telegraph, and telephones have also been introduced with the greatest success. Between 1896 and 1902 eighty-seven Post Offices were opened for the public throughout the island, which, in 1902, handled 13,285,105 letters and post cards and 114,779 parcels, and issued 336,207 domestic money orders. The length of telegraph wire has grown from 900 miles in 1896 to 2,600 miles in 1902, and 1350 miles of telephone wire have been laid, over which in 1902 3,690,228 messages were sent.
郵政,電報,和電話也極成功地引進。在1896至1902期間,87個郵局在全島營業,其中在1902年,共處理了13,285,105封信件及明信片,114,779件包裹,和發送了336,207個匯款單。電報線從1896年的900英哩成長到1902年的2600英哩,而電話線在1902時也舖設了1350英哩,在其間發送了3,690,228件信息。

The native industries which were carried on Formosa when the Japanese arrived were pursued in a very unsatisfactory fashion. Scientific cultivation, and even thorough cultivation, of the fruitful ground was unknown; the natives relieschiefly on the bounty of Nature unaided, and though the Formosa farmer did obtain two, and even three, crops of rice a year, his harvest was not proportionate to his toil and his income was totally inadequate.
在日本到達前,福爾摩沙本地原有的產業是以不合時宜的方式在運作。不知道在肥沃的大地上,科學種植或徹底培養;當地人主要依賴從自然環境所賜的報酬而沒有加值的能力,雖然福爾摩沙的農民一年能有一獲,兩獲,甚至三獲,對於其辛勞及不足的收入,是完全不相稱的

 

Through the improved methods which have been introduced by the Japanese, the production of rice has increased by 10 percent between 1896 and 1902. The production of tea has grown fivefold between the same years, and the other agricultural staple products, such as sugar, sweet potatoes, cane, ramie, jute, turmeric, & etc., all show a very large increase.
從日本已經引進的改良方法,稻米的生產在1896年至1902年之間,增加了百分之十。茶葉的產量則在同一時期成長了五倍。而其它的農產品,諸如糖,蕃薯,甘蔗,苧麻,黃麻,薑黃等,都呈現了大量的增加。

The enormous forests also were insufficiently utilized, and the wastefulness of the natives was such that, for instance, camphor oil was treated as waste by the native refiners, who extracted camphor from the wood. The consequence of the reforms which have been introduced by the Japanese has been that the production of camphor has steadily increased from 1,534,596 kin in 1897 to 3,588,814 kin in 1903, and the output of camphor oil has risen from 638,603 kin in 1897 to 2,670,561 kin in 1903.
巨大的森林也沒有充分的利用,當地人的浪費,好比說在從樟樹中製造樟腦的過程中,樟腦油被當作廢物。在日本人引進改良的成果,樟腦的產量已經從1897年1,534,596斤到1903年的3,588,814斤,而樟腦油的產量也從1897年的638,603斤到1903年的2,670,561斤。

Mining likewise was carried on in the most superficial and improvident fashion and consequently the maximum of labor yielded but a minimum of result.
礦業也是在最膚淺而無遠見的方式下進行,因此在極大的勞力中獲取微小的成果。

By patient tuition and gentle insistence the Japanese have succeeded in introducing improved methods in all industries. The farms yield better harvests, the forests are scientifically exploited, and millions of young camphor trees have been planted in suitable places, and the mining industry has made an enormous progress in the last few years.
在耐心的教導和溫和的堅持下,日本成功的在所有產業中引進了改良的方法。農田有更好的收成,森林也被科學式的開發,數百萬樟樹也種植在適當的地方,而礦業也在前幾年有巨大的進步。

 

Bank and Currency System
銀行和貨幣制度

The improvement in trade and industries of Formosa naturally made apparent the need of improved banking organs and an improved currency system. Consequently, the Formosan Bank was established as the central banking organ in the island, and private banking offices were opened in the more important centers.
在福爾摩沙的貿易和工業的改進過程中,對改良銀行體系和貨幣系統的需求,必然地是非常明顯的。其結果乃在島上設立了做為中央銀行體系的福爾摩沙銀行,而私人銀行也開設許多重要的辦公中心。

Post Office savings banks have also been opened, and have had a highly gratifying success. The number of depositors has increased from 5,847 in 1896 to 41,145 in 1902, and the amount deposited from 228,487 yen in 1896 to 763,575 yen in 1902.
郵政儲金銀行也開設並已經有非常令人滿意的成功。存戶的數目從1896的5,847到1902的41,145,而存額則從1896的228,487日圓到1902的763,575日圓。

The currency of Formosa also had to be reformed. Formosa used to be a country where the medium of exchange was bullion, not coin, exactly as in China, and the bulky copper coinage used to make commercial transactions of any magnitude well might an impossibility. This antediluvian monetary system has now been replaced by the up-to-date monetary system of Japan.
福爾摩沙的貨幣也必需轉型。福爾摩沙曾經是像中國一樣靠的是金銀塊做為交易的工具,而非貨幣,而曾經做為商業交易之笨重的銅幣鋳造也幾乎是不可能。這種舊式的金融體系也已經被現代化的日本系統所取代。

Japan has poured money like water into Formosa. She has established factories for making brown sugar, white sugar, glass, paper, etc.; she has sent out many of her ablest men as administrators, and she will no doubt in due time receive her reward for her enlightened policy.
日本已經像倒水般的把錢倒入福爾摩沙。她也已經建立了製棕糖,白糖,玻璃,紙等的工廠;她也已經送進來許多最有能力的管理者,而無庸致疑地,必然將從這有見識的政策中獲得她應有的報酬。

Only a few years have elapsed since the island has been completely pacified. Nevertheless, the economic ordinary progress which has already been made is very striking. The increased prosperity of the inhabitants may be seen from the fact that the general revenue, which is principally derived from Government works and undertakings, the opium monopoly, customs, and various taxes has expanded from 2,711,822 yen in 1896 to 12,738,587 yen in 1903, having grown almost tenfold.
在這島上的暴動撫平也不過是短短數年。然而,經濟上正常運作已是非常令人震憾。居民生活上繁榮的成長也許可以從一般收入的增加看出來,而那是原則上從政府的工作和努力中得來的,鴉片的專賣,關稅,和各種稅收已從1986 年的2,711,822日圓到1903年的12,738,587,幾乎是十倍的成長。

The ordinary local revenue, which is chiefly composed of taxes on land, houses, businesses, & etc., has risen from 747,850 yen in 1898, to 1,952,220 yen in 1902, having almost been tripled in four years. In the collection of the general and local taxes, no undue hardship has been exercised in order to obtain these magnificent results.
平常的地方稅收,其主要來自土地稅,房屋稅,實業等,也已從1898 年的747,850日圓到1903年的1,952,220日圓,幾乎是在四年間翻了三倍。為了得到豐碩的結果,在徵收一般稅和地方稅中,並沒有施與不當的麻煩。

It is, therefore only natural that the population of Formosa has rapidly increased paripassu with the development of its resources. In 1897, the population of Formosa amounted to 2,455,357, but in 1903 it had risen to 3,082,404.
很自然的福爾摩沙的人口數也隨著其資源的開發,同步調地快速的在成長。在1897年其人口總數2,455,357,但在1903年已增至3,082,404。

原著:紐約時報
翻譯:Claire S.J. Huang黃士娟主任
原文連結:http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9902E5D8123AE733A25756C2A96F9C946597D6CF

閱讀 6916 次數 最後修改於 週四, 25 七月 2013 00:17
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